The Operating System is a generic name given to all of the elements (user interface, libraries, resources) which make up the system as a whole.
The kernel is “brain” of the operating system, which controls everything from access to the hard disk to memory management. Whenever you want to do anything, it goes though the kernel.
a kernel is part of the operating system, it is the first thing that the boot loader loads onto the cpu (for most operating systems), it is the part that interfaces with the hardware, and it also manages what programs can do what with the hardware, it is really the central part of the os, it is made up of drivers, a driver is a program that interfaces with a particular piece of hardware, for example: if I made a digital camera for computers, I would need to make a driver for it, the drivers are the only programs that can control the input and output of the computer
The Kernel is the core piece of the operating system. It is not necessarily an operating system in and of itself.
Everything else is built around it.
In computing, the ‘kernel’ is the central component of most computer operating systems; it is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. The kernel’s responsibilities include managing the system’s resources (the communication between hardware and software components).